Please search PubMed if you do not find the resources you are looking for in this list. We also welcome you to contact us.

e.g. author, title, abstract
Harper M, Dugan E, Espeland M, Martinez-Borges A, Mcquellon C. Why African-American women are at greater risk for pregnancy-related death. Ann Epidemiol Mar 2007; 17: 180-5.

PURPOSE: Our study aim was to identify factors that may contribute to the racial disparity in pregnancy-related mortality. METHODS: We examined differences in severity of disease, comorbidities, and receipt of care among 608 (304 African-American and 304 white) consecutive patients of non-Hispanic ethnicity with one of three pregnancy-related morbidities (pregnancy-related hypertension, puerperal infection, and hemorrhage) from hospitals selected at random from a statewide region. RESULTS: African-American women had more severe hypertension, lower hemoglobin concentrations preceding hemorrhage, more antepartum hospital admissions, and a higher rate of obesity. The rate of surgical intervention for hemorrhage was lower among African-Americans, although the severity of hemorrhage did not differ between the two racial groups. More African-American women received eclampsia prophylaxis. After stratifying by severity of hypertension, we found that more African-Americans received antihypertensive therapy. The rate of enrollment for prenatal care was lower in the African-American group. Among women receiving prenatal care, African-American women enrolled significantly later in their pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified racial differences in severity of disease, comorbidities, and care status among women with pregnancy-related complications that would place African-Americans at disadvantage to survive pregnancy. These differences are potentially modifiable.

Lewis G, Drife J. Why Mothers Die 2000 - 2002. CEMACH Nov 2004; 1 - 15.
The Commonwealth Fund. Why Not the Best?.

About was created and is maintained by The Commonwealth Fund, a private foundation working toward a high performance health system. It is a free resource for health care professionals interested in tracking performance on various measures of health care quality. It enables organizations to compare their performance against that of peer organizations, against a range of benchmarks, and over time. Case studies and improvement tools spotlight successful improvement strategies of the nation’s top performers.

Currently, the site includes measures of hospital quality that are publicly reported on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Web site, Hospital Compare. Specifically, it includes 24 Hospital Quality Alliance measures that report how often hospitals deliver recommended care processes for the following four conditions: heart attack, heart failure, pneumonia, and surgical care improvement. In addition, it includes 10 measures from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS), which reports hospital patients’ satisfaction with their care. We will update these data sets four times a year. Data are included for nearly all U.S. hospitals, some 4,440. Click here to view the specific measures.

We will continue to add new measure sets and develop additional functionality over time. If you would like to stay informed of new data or features on, please sign up for e-mail alerts. If you would like to provide feedback on the site or make a suggestion for improvement, please contact If you are having technical problems with the site, please contact

For information on how we use these data to create composites measures and rank hospitals according to their performance levels, please visit the Methodology Section.

<39 Weeks. Why the Last Weeks of Pregnancy Count?.
Thompson F, Ford JB, Raynes-Greenow CH, Roberts CL, Ellwood DA. Women's Experiences of Care and Their Concerns and Needs Following a Significant Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage. Birth 38: 1-9.

Background: In the context of rising rates of postpartum hemorrhage and little data about its effect on women, this study aimed to describe the experiences of care, and the concerns and needs of women after a significant postpartum hemorrhage.
Methods: A cohort of 206 women with a primary postpartum hemorrhage of 1,500 mL or more and/or a peripartum fall in hemoglobin concentration to 7 g ⁄ dL or less and ⁄ or of 4 g ⁄ dL or more was recruited from 17 major hospitals in Australasia. Women rated their satisfaction with care and provided written responses to questions in postpartum questionnaires completed in the first
week and at 2 and 4 months postpartum. Results: In relation to care in hospital, consistently over 20 percent women responded that their needs for information, acknowledgment, and reassurance were only met sometimes, rarely, or never. Sixty-two percent reported that they were given adequate information about their likely physical recovery, and 48 percent about their likely emotional recovery. Four major themes were identified in response to the open-ended questions: adequacy of care, emotional responses to the experience, implications for the future, and concerns for their baby. Conclusions: This study is an important step in identifying the negative impact of experiencing a significant postpartum hemorrhage during childbirth for women who survive. Our results suggest that health professionals should pay greater attention to these women’s informational and emotional needs.

East C, Conway K, Pollock W, Frawley N, Brennecke, S. Women's Experiences of Preeclampsia: Australian Action on Preeclampsia Survey of Women and Their Confidants. J Pregnancy

Introduction. The experience of normal pregnancy is often disrupted for women with preeclampsia (PE). Materials and Methods. Postal survey of the 112 members of the consumer group, Australian Action on Pre-Eclampsia (AAPEC). Results. Surveys were returned by 68 women (61% response rate) and from 64 (57%) partners, close relatives or friends. Respondents reported experiencing pre-eclampsia (𝑛=53), eclampsia (𝑛=5), and/or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome) (𝑛=26). Many women had no knowledge of PE prior to diagnosis (77%) and, once diagnosed, did not appreciate how serious or life threatening it was (50%). Women wanted access to information about PE. Their experience contributed substantial anxiety towards future pregnancies. Partners/friends/relatives expressed fear for the woman and/or her baby and had no prior understanding of PE. Conclusions. The PE experience had a substantial effect on women, their confidants, and their babies and affected their approach to future pregnancies. Access to information about PE was viewed as very important.

AHRQ. Women's Health Care in the US: Selected Findings from the 2004 National Healthcare Quality and DIsparities Reports. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
PMAD. Women's Health Website, Spanish Language Resources.
PMAD. Women's Mental Health .
Elmir, R; Schmied, V; Wilkes, L & Jackson, D. Women's Perceptions and Experiences of a Traumatic Birth: A meta-ethnography. Journal of Advanced Nursing 66: 2142-2153.

Nursing 66(10), 2142–2153. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05391.x
Aim. This study presents the findings a meta-ethnographic study reporting women’s perceptions and experiences of traumatic birth.
Background. Childbirth is viewed by many as a life transition that can bring a sense of accomplishment. However, for some women, birth is experienced as a traumatic event with a minority experiencing post-traumatic stress. A traumatic birth experience can have a significant impact on the physical and emotional well-being of a woman, her infant and family.
Data source. The CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus and PubMed databases were searched
for the period January 1994 to October 2009 using the keywords birth trauma,
traumatic birth, qualitative research, birth narrative and birth stories.
Review methods. A meta-ethnographic approach was used. Quality appraisal was
carried out. An index paper served as a guide in identifying particular findings and comparing them with other findings. This ‘reciprocal translation’ process started witha search for common themes, phrases and metaphors.
Results. Ten qualitative studies were included in the final sample. Six major themes were identified: ‘feeling invisible and out of control’, ‘to be treated humanely’, ‘feeling trapped: the reoccurring nightmare of my childbirth experience’, ‘a rollercoaster of emotions’, ‘disrupted relationships’ and ‘strength of purpose: a way to succeed as a mother’.
Conclusions. It is evident that a small percentage of women experience a traumatic birth. Although some women who experience a traumatic birth do not necessarily have physical or psychological adverse outcomes, others identify a significant personal impact. Healthcare professionals must recognize women’s need to be involved in decision-making and to be fully informed about all aspects of their labour and birth to increase their sense of control.
Keywords: childbirth, meta-ethnography, midwifery, nursing, qualitative study,
traumatic birth